Aryan Naraghi

Data Serialization: Introduction

This post is part of a series on data serialization. If you haven’t already, take a look at Data Serialization: A Roadmap before reading this post.

In this post, we explain what data serialization is and what it’s used for. We’ll begin with an example, followed by a generalized definition.

An Example

Suppose you are building a status sharing application, similar to Twitter. Each user has a profile page that lists a timeline of their status updates. Users can view profile pages and post status updates through a web frontend, an iOS app, or an Android app. We refer to the web frontend and the mobile apps as clients.

A status update contains three fields of data: the message, the time of the update, and the user’s location, given as a pair of latitude and longitude. Since our application facilitates sharing of status updates, we must have a central source of truth. An HTTP server acts as this central source. Clients contact the server to fetch status updates and post new ones.

Because clients are implemented in different programming languages and operate on a variety of platforms, we need a common format for clients and the server to communicate.

HTTP already handles the details of transporting data. Consider the case of posting a new status update. To post a new update, let’s assume that a client sends an HTTP POST request to the /profiles/me/statuses endpoint on the server. The body of this request contains the status update. We’ll refer to the body as the payload. Here’s what a request may look like:

POST /profiles/me/statuses HTTP/1.1
Content-Type: text/plain
Authorization: ...


Let’s now turn to how the payload is created. Suppose the web frontend is implemented in TypeScript with the following class definition for a status update:

class StatusUpdate {
  readonly message: string;
  readonly timestamp: Date;
  readonly location: Location;

  constructor(message: string, timestamp: Date, location: Location) {
    // ...

Similarly, the Android app is implemented in Java with status updates represented using a class as follows:

public class StatusUpdate {
  private final String message;
  private final Date timestamp;
  private final Location location;

  public StatusUpdate(String message, Date timestamp, Location location) {
    // ...

When clients create new instances of these objects, each client will have its own platform-dependent way of representing the underlying data in memory. It would be infeasible to teach the server about each platform-dependent format, so we need a common, platform-independent way of constructing the payload that is placed in the status update HTTP POST request. Let’s see how we can construct a platform-independent payload.

Newline-Delimited Format

We’ll name our first proposal the newline-delimited format. We will place each field of the status update on its own line, starting with the message. For example, suppose we have a status update with the message “Hello, world!”, created on November 13, 2020 from Seattle. Here’s how the payload is constructed:

Hello, world!

Both the web frontend and the Android app can produce payloads that look like the above, even though their status update representations vary. This is our first example of data serialization, which gives us a platform-independent way of representing data structures. Note that the payload in the above example is a sequence of bits that happens to also be a human-readable string.

While the newline-delimited scheme works, it is brittle. All client and server code must adhere to a strict (and arbitrary) ordering of data when encoding and decoding payloads. For example, if a client reorders the timestamp and location, then a server will be unable to parse the payload correctly:

Hello, world!

Optional fields are also tricky. Suppose we want to make the location optional and introduce the ability to reply to an existing status by including a link to the subject status. This now leads to potential payloads like:

I'm a status message without a location.


I'm a reply to a friend's status. I include my location.


I'm a reply to a friend's status. I do not include my location.

It quickly becomes difficult for the server to figure out which line corresponds to which piece of data. For example, if a location is included, the subject status link appears on the fourth line. Without a location, the subject status link appears on the third line.

For this contrived example, the server can sniff the contents of each line to tell what it contains, but this is not a scalable solution. This regime will break if we introduce additional fields that are optional and have the same type. For example, suppose we allow for two types of optional locations: the location as reported by the user’s phone as well as the location selected by the user. If a payload contains a single location, how can the server tell what type of location it is given?

It’s clear that the newline-delimited format is inflexible. Further, this format does not abide by the robustness principle. That is, being conservative in what the client sends and liberal in what the server accepts.

Key-Value Format

Let’s design a more robust solution. What if we prefixed each field with a key followed by an equals sign? We’ll refer to this as the key-value format. Consider this example:

StatusMessage=Hello, world!

Or this one which omits all location data:

StatusMessage=Hello, world! I lack location data!

As with the earlier examples, these payloads are also just sequences of bits, which happen to also be human-readable strings. Now the server can look at the keys to make sense of the payload. Supporting optional fields does not require complex logic on the server’s part. Additionally, the key-value format makes the payload human-readable, which is a desirable property for debuggability (though not necessarily for performance; more on this in a future post).

We’ve now covered two ways of constructing status update payloads: the newline-delimited format and the key-value format. While these examples are contrived and should not be used in practice due to the availability of better approaches we will cover shortly, the examples allow a gentle introduction to what can be a complex topic. We are now ready for a generalized definition of data serialization.

A Generalized Definition

Data serialization is the process of translating an in-memory data structure into a sequence of platform-independent bits that can be used for transport and storage. Data deserialization is the reverse: reading back into memory a data structure from its serialized bits.

In our example, the status updates are serialized by clients to support transport to the server. The server performs the reverse operation when it receives the POST request.

We did not cover storage, but the story is the same: when the server saves status updates to persistent storage, it must again serialize the data to a format appropriate for the storage system.


Armed with a definition of data serialization, we can now dive in and explore an assortment of popular data serialization formats along with the trade-offs at play. The next post in the series covers the JavaScript Object Notation, also known as JSON.